Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Nomadism: A Wandering God Review Part 5

Ludwig Wittgenstein, in his life and work, is one model for how “spiritual nomadism” might root itself in sedentary societies. He is like a tight-rope walker balancing between two poles of consciousness.

One pole holds to the Paradoxical mode of consciousness. This is the Paleolithic hunter-gatherer experience of a “mature ambiguity that grounds itself in immediate world presence.”

The other pole holds to the Sacred Authority Complex (SAC) mode of consciousness. This is the Neolithic agricultural experience of an obsession with certainty that finds meaning in non-immediate world views.

Both Nomadic cultures and Ludwig Wittgenstein balance between the two poles.

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Nomads and the Paradoxical Alternative: A Wandering God Review (Part 4)

Nomads are the acrobats of history who balance between:

  1. The perception of paradox and the perception of the Sacred Authority Complex.
  2. The practice of mature ambiguity and the obsessive need for certainty.
  3. Our “mobile genetic heritage” and our sedentary present.

Nomads are not part of the horizontal world of Paleolithic cultures. Nor are they part of the vertical world of sedentary cultures. They exist somewhere in between.

This in-between existence causes tension. This tension centers around movement.

The mobile lifestyle of nomads clashes with the sedentary lifestyle of agriculturalists. In his book Wandering God, Morris Berman writes that, for nomads:

“Their deepest value is freedom, which is underwritten by movement; on this view, to stay in any one place would be little better than imprisonment. As for sedentists, they have been peculiarly obsessed with getting nomads to stop moving. (…) It is not, then, merely raiding that is the source of sedentary animosity towards nomads; on a deeper level, it is movement itself.”

Lets focus in on these two worlds.

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Origin of Social Inequality: Wandering God (Part 2)

Social inequality plays a central role in the shift from “what might be called ‘horizontal’ egalitarian relations to ‘vertical’ hierarchical ones” as Morris Berman writes in his book Wandering God.

We see in the last post that the birth of existential awareness a few thousand years ago leads to a painful alienation. The Self becomes split from the World. Sapiens grapple with this split through paradox, the sacred authority complex, and dullardism.

Paradox accepts and lives with the Self/World split, leading to a type of mature ambiguity. We mostly find it in hunter-gatherer (HG) societies who tend to have horizontal-egalitarian relations.

The Sacred Authority Complex transcends (or tries to) the Self/World split, leading to a focus on certainty. We mostly find it in agricultural civilizations who tend to have vertical- hierarchical relations.

Dullardism isn’t so important to our narrative, so we’ll put it aside for now.

In this post we’ll look at social inequality.

Social Inequality: What, When, and How

According to trusty online google searches, social inequality is “the existence of unequal opportunities and rewards for different social positions or statuses within a group or society.”

Well, clearly, in most parts of the modern world, we have that.

Was it always here? If not, when did it arise? How did it arise?

Berman cites the work of the social anthropologist Alain Testart who “locates the rise of social inequality in the phenomenon of storage among certain groups of HGs.”

As Testart writes in this paper these “storing hunter-gatherer societies exhibit three characteristics- sedentarism, a high population density, and the development of socioeconomic inequalities.”

Importance of Storage in Rise of Social Inequality

All of which provides us with a clue as to when.

Berman writes:

“At the very least, it is by now abundantly clear that social inequality antedated the deliberate cultivation of the first sheaf of wheat.”

If storage itself arises before the Agricultural Revolution, then social inequality does as well. Although its origins might lie there, its rapid expansion and domination coincides with the growth of agricultural civilizations.

The Other Factors

Although the phenomenon of storage is essential for the rise of social inequality, it’s by no means the only factor. Berman outlines a few others, including:

1. Population pressures

2. The influence of “aggressive subgroups”

3. Alteration in child-rearing practices

4. Breakdown of ‘levelling mechanisms’

5. Deliberate human intention

So we know what it is (“unequal opportunities and rewards for different social positions or statuses”).

We know when it was (in HG societies before “the deliberate cultivation of the first sheaf of wheat”).

We know how it arose (phenomenon of storage plus the 5 factors above).

If social inequality arose prior to the Agricultural Revolution, why didn’t it dominate in those societies nearly as much as it has in agricultural societies?

The spread of social inequality is kept in check

The Right Timing

Although it isn’t rosy utopia’s back in the HG day, it also isn’t the “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” existence that Thommy Hobbes was writing about.

Berman avoids the ‘noble-savage’ romanticism by reminding us that “the potential for stratification is present within egalitarian societies, just waiting for the right context to spring in.”

That context, for the most part, is not the hunter-gatherer context.

Intense stratification is certainly possible, like a gene waiting for activation, but that possibility is kept in check. One way of doing this is by relying upon the freedom of movement to resolve conflicts.

“The point is that in HG societies such as these, people are not coerced (i.e., do not coerce themselves) into ‘community’; the system is much more laissez-faire. When a conflict arises, people simply pull up stakes and move on.”

When The Stresses Pile Up

However, in times of stress (like major climactic changes), the freedom to get up, move, and form new communities was curtailed. During these stressful times, a new dynamic arose as “aggressive subgroups” of people began to dominate for brief periods.

As the stresses withered away so did the aggressive subgroups. This cycle, most likely, repeats over-and-over. At some point though, the new dynamic begins taking hold for longer and longer periods of time.

The dormant gene activates for the long term and social stratification begins molding the religion and politics that will come. As Berman writes:

“The potential for verticality of both a political and a religious sort may possibly be inherent in human makeup, but apparently it gets (or got) triggered in HG societies for the most part only under certain stressful conditions. When that happens, a certain aggressive subgroup comes forward to take power, and this pushes the rest of the group into a prisoner’s dilemma situation: get on the bandwagon or get left behind.”

History, in large part, chose the bandwagon.

The next post will focus on the political and religious aspects of the bandwagon most of us are traveling in.

David Hume on How Thoughts are Made and Mixed

David Hume thought a lot about how thoughts are made and mixed. His thoughts concerning such inquiries was summed up in the 1748 classic “An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.”

As far as titles go (refer to the title), it’s entitled to a bit of praise for it so accurately describes what follows. The “what” that follows is the subject of Human Understanding.

What is “understanding”? How do humans understand? Continue reading

Human History in Three Revolutions

Cognitive Revolution

 

The pace of biological evolution makes paint drying on a wall seem like NASCAR, so not a lot of noteworthy stuff occurs  until we arrive at anatomically modern humans in East Africa 200,000 years ago.

Although slowness still reigns, it picks up a bit 70,000 years ago when the Cognitive Revolution begins. This is one of three major revolutions that Yuval Noah Harari details in his comprehensive book Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind.

“The Cognitive Revolution is accordingly the point when history declared its independence from biology.  (…) From the Cognitive Revolution onwards, historical narratives replace biological theories as our primary means of explaining the development of Homo sapiens. To understand the rise of Christianity or the French Revolution, it is not enough to comprehend the interaction of genes, hormones and organisms. It is necessary to take into account the interaction of ideas, images and fantasies as well.”

Long before Christianity or the French Revolution came, the development of language itself and the radical expansion in our ability to think and communicate came. All of subsequent history is indebted to the gifts imparted by the Cognitive Revolution.  Continue reading

Separation Worldview to Interbeing World Presence

Transition from Old Story Self to New Story Self
The Sense of Self in the Old Story, the Space Between Stories, and the New Story

The human story undergoes a dramatic plot twist a few thousand years ago. A nomadic lifestyle of Interbeing World Presence morphs into a sedentary lifestyle of a Separation Worldview.

The “agriculturalization” phase shift that William Irwin Thompson outlines in his model of cultural transformation eventually grows into Civilization, Industrialization, and where we are now.

Where we are now is inside the narrative depths of what Charles Eisenstein calls the Old Story.

He writes:

“The world as we know it is built on a story. To be a change agent is, first, to disrupt the existing Story of the World, and second, to tell a new Story of the World so that those entering the space between stories have a place to go.”

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Why Architecture Makes Us Better

Why do we build things?

For much of human history we didn’t. Maybe we didn’t have the capacity; maybe we didn’t see the need.  Somewhere along the way – most likely a few thousand years after the Agricultural Revolution with the rise of Civilization –people started to surround themselves with architecture.

Archaeologists and historians can get an idea of what the interior life of those who lived long ago might have been based upon the buildings left behind. Nowadays most people around the globe are surrounded by architecture and, likewise, these surroundings can tell us a lot about ourselves.

Alain de Botton expands upon this in his book The Architecture of Happiness. It centers around an insight and an implication:

  1. Insight: Buildings are psychological molds.
  2. Implication: We can mold ourselves into better humans through architecture.

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Comfort, Solitude, and Why It Matters for Travel

Witold Rybczynksi was uncomfortable.

Uncomfortable with the fact that comfort was left out of his architectural education. It made no sense — but that didn’t stop them from charging far too many cents to get the diploma! Anyways that curious omission made him, well, curious and that curiosity (after killing the cat) sparked an interest and that interest grew into a book and that book charted the historical progression of one question: Continue reading

Book Review of Open Veins of Latin America

stack of books

There are some books that you read and some books that read you.

The latter kind come with demands. They say “listen listen…sit down, shut up, and pay attention”. After you check your punch to make sure it wasn’t spiked, you interrogate the book —“why are you talking to me?!” — and then, inevitably, end up sitting down, shutting up, and paying attention. Continue reading